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Post comment to your Facebook Timeline What's This? Submit Comment Clear. Your comment will be posted to MailOnline as usual. Your comment will be posted to MailOnline as usual We will automatically post your comment and a link to the news story to your Facebook timeline at the same time it is posted on MailOnline. More top stories. Bing Site Web Enter search term: Search. Download our iPhone app Download our Android app. Today's headlines Most Read Stunning image of the Milky Way captured using radio waves giving us a 'brand new view' of our galaxy Biggest storm in the solar system will live to die another day: Astronomers claim that reports of Jupiter's For the first time ever, Instagram reveals how it uses AI to tailor the Explore tab to individual users TSA is testing new 3D rotating scanning technology to see through your baggage and 'digital dog noses' to A blue whale can beat its heart at just twice a minute when it's diving for food - up to 50 percent slower Dress to impress: Women may wear more revealing outfits when they are trying to climb the social ladder and Facebook is building a 'Close Friends' feature similar to Instagram that lets users share content with an Shocking 'then and now' pictures of Switzerland's glaciers reveal the how much ice has melted since the Rocket Lab prepares for its 10th mission where it will test technology designed to catch parts of its launch Japanese cosmetics company announces new spray-on skin that will help cover up scars and cover up spots and Facebook secretly built a facial recognition app four years ago that could 'identify any member of the Apple's new iPad is blazingly fast, gorgeous to look at, and quite simply the best tablet out there - and for a lot of people, probably the best computer out there.

The small smart display with big potential: Google Home Hub review. Google is late to the game with its Home Hub, but the low price and AI features make it a great choice for controlling your home, showing pictures and even helping run your life. On one hand, the XR lacks the high-resolution screen and dual-lens camera on the XS. AI seems to permeate every part of its software, from the ability to answer calls for you to being able to almost perfectly predict your morning commute. The three laws of motion set forth by Isaac Newton form the foundation of classical mechanics, together with the recognition that forces are directed quantities vectors and combine accordingly.

The first law, also called the law of inertia , states that, unless acted upon by an external force , an object at rest remains at rest, or if in motion, it continues to move in a straight line with constant speed.

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Uniform motion therefore does not require a cause. Accordingly, mechanics concentrates not on motion as such but on the change in the state of motion of an object that results from the net force acting upon it. Taken together, these mechanical laws in principle permit the determination of the future motions of a set of particles, providing their state of motion is known at some instant, as well as the forces that act between them and upon them from the outside. From this deterministic character of the laws of classical mechanics, profound and probably incorrect philosophical conclusions have been drawn in the past and even applied to human history.

Lying at the most basic level of physics, the laws of mechanics are characterized by certain symmetry properties, as exemplified in the aforementioned symmetry between action and reaction forces. Other symmetries, such as the invariance i. The symmetry properties of the theory can be shown to have as mathematical consequences basic principles known as conservation laws , which assert the constancy in time of the values of certain physical quantities under prescribed conditions.

The conserved quantities are the most important ones in physics; included among them are mass and energy in relativity theory, mass and energy are equivalent and are conserved together , momentum , angular momentum , and electric charge. Physics science.

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Written By: Laurie M. Brown Richard Tilghman Weidner. See Article History.

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  5. Read More on This Topic. At the same time that mathematicians were attempting to put their own house in order, they were also looking with renewed interest at contemporary…. So, everything we see around us is made up of two kinds of quark up and the down, together with the electron. And to this we need to add a fourth particle: the neutrino. Neutrinos are produced, for example, in the nuclear reactions going on in the Sun.

    The neutrino is like the electron except that it carries no electric charge and so it doesn't experience the electrical force. And like the electron, it doesn't experience the strong nuclear force either. So because they experience only this weak force, neutrinos are famous for hardly interacting with anything at all.

    So, there we have it: The four constituents of matter: the up and the down quark, the electron and its neutrino.

    What could be simpler? Except that it's not that simple! No, it's much more Two beams travelling in that tube, going in opposite directions — one counter clockwise and one clockwise. And at various points they are made to collide. Are we trying to break open the proton into its component bits — you know those three quarks?

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    No, that might have been one of the original motivations but actually something much more intriguing than that happens. Two protons right? They come together and collide. Through this tension the earth tends towards resolution into, on the one hand, a crystal, a moon, or on the other hand into a fluid body, a comet, and the moments seek to realise their connection with their independent roots. The other moment of the process is that being for itself towards which both sides of the antithesis strive, suspends itself as negativity pushed to its extreme;-it becomes the self-igniting destruction of the different existence sought by the moments.

    Through this process the substantial identity of the moments is produced, and the earth transforms itself into fertile individuality. The thunderstorm is the complete manifestation of this process, whereas the other meteorological phenomena are beginnings or moments and undeveloped elaborations of it.

    Concerning thunderstorms, however, physics has so far been unable to propose a satisfactory explanation-since it limits its perspective to the conditions of the external process-, neither of rain formation in spite of de Luc's observations and the conclusions drawn from them, and, among the Germans, the arguments made by the clever Lichtenberg against the theory of dissolution, whose conclusions have at least been retained to some extent nor of lightning and thunder.

    It has had just as little success with other meteorological phenomena, in particular with meteorites, in which the process progresses as far as the beginning of an earthly core. The concept of matter, gravity, sets out its moments in elemental nature, initially in the form of independent realities. The earth is initially the abstract ground of individuality, and posits itself in its process as the negative unity of the abstract, mutually separating elements, and consequently as the real ground and actuality of individualisation.

    Now, in this actuality, the elements present themselves as being unified together in concrete points of unity. The individual body is matter, brought together by the particularity of the elements out of the generality of gravity and into individuality. Thus it is determined in and for itself and has by virtue of its individuality a characteristic form which constitutes the unity of the differentiation of a body.

    The individuality of matter in its immediate existence is the immanent form, which gives its own determinate difference to that material of the body which itself has in the first place only a superficial unit, and then one particular determinacy as its essence. This is the shape, the specific kind of inward coherence of matter and its external border in space; — the individuality of the mechanism. The specification of matter as an element is at this point shapeless, because it is still only a singularity. Regarding the form of the shape, and individuality in general, it is preferable to avoid the image of an external, mechanical style and composition.

    It may help in this case to distinguish between the externality of style and the inwardness of the shape's coherence, but the essential point is to remember the peculiar differentiation which arises from this distinction, which at the same time constitutes a determinate, self-identical unity in the relation.

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    The abstract specification is the specific gravity or density of matter, the relation of the weight of its mass to the volume. In this relation the material selfhood tears itself away from the abstract, general relations to the central body, ceases to be the uniform filling of space, and opposes a specific being in itself to an abstract being apart from itself. The varying density of matter is often explained by the assumption of pores; - though "to explain" means in general to refer a phenomenon back to the accepted, familiar determinations of the understanding, and no conceptions are more familiar than those of "composition," "pieces and their details," and "emptiness.

    These would be empty interstices, though physics does not demonstrate them, despite its attempt to speak of them as at hand and its claim to be based on experience and observation. What is beyond these and is merely assumed is the matter of thought.

    It does not occur to physics, however, that it has thoughts, which is true in at least two senses and here in a third sense: the pores are only imaginative inventions. An immediate example of the peculiar specification of gravity offered by physics is furnished by the phenomenon that, when a bar of iron, evenly balanced on its fulcrum, is magnetised, it loses its equilibrium and shows itself to be heavier at one pole than at the other. Kant has already contrasted intensity to the quantitative determination of the amount, and, instead of positing that the heavier body contains more particles in a certain space, he has assumed that in the heavier body the same number of particles fill space to a greater degree.

    In this way he created "dynamic physics.

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    4. Here the intensive determination of size, however, has this advantage: that it points to the category of measure and indicates initially a being in itself which as a conceptual determination is an immanent determinacy of form, and only existent as quantum. But to distinguish between extensive or intensive quantum differences, - and dynamic physics goes no further than this-does not express any reality. Density is at first only a simple determinacy.

      The simple determinacy is, however, essentially a determination of form as a unity split apart from itself. Thus it constitutes the principle of brittleness, the shaping relation of its consistently maintained points.

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      The previously mentioned particles, molecules of matter, are an external determination of reflection. The real significance of the determination of the unit is that it is the immanent form of shaping. The brittle is the subjective entity existing for itself but it must deploy the difference of the concept.

      The point becomes the line and posits itself as an opposed extreme to the line; the two are held by their middle term and point of indifference in their antithesis. This syllogism constitutes the principle of shaping in its developed determinacy, and is, in this abstract rigour, magnetism.

      Magnetism is one of the determinations which inevitably became prominent when thought began to recognise itself in determinate nature and grasped the idea of a philosophy of nature. For the magnet exhibits in a simple, naive way the nature of the concept. The poles are not particular things; they do not possess sensory, mechanical reality, but rather an ideal reality; the point of indifference, in which they have their substance, is the unity in which they exist only as determinations of the concept, and the polarity is an opposition of only such moments.

      The phenomena revealed by magnetism as merely particular are merely and repeatedly the same determinations, and not diverse features which could add data to a description. That the individual magnetic needle points to the north, and thus to the south as well, is a manifestation of general terrestrial magnetism: in two such empirical magnets the poles named similarly repel each other, whereas the poles named differently attract. And precisely this is magnetism, namely, that the same or indifferent will split apart and oppose each other in the extreme, and the dissimilar or different will posit its indifference.

      The differently named poles have even been called friendly, and the similarly named poles have been called hostile. The statement, however, that all bodies are magnetic has an unfortunate double meaning. The correct meaning is that all real, and not merely brittle, figures contain this concept; but the incorrect meaning is that all bodies also have this principle implicitly in its rigorous abstraction, as magnetism. It would be an unphilosophical thought to want to show that a form of the concept is at hand in nature, and that it exists universally in its determinacy as an abstraction.

      For nature is rather the idea in the element of being apart from itself so that, like the understanding, it retains the moments of the concept as dispersed and depicts them so in reality, but in the higher organic things the differentiated forms of the concept are unified as the highest concretion.

      At the opposite end from magnetism, which as linear spatiality and the ideal contrast of extremes is the abstract concept of the shape, stands its abstract totality the sphere, the shape of the real absence of shape, of fluid indeterminacy, and of the indifferent elasticity of the parts. Between the two actually shapeless extremes contained within magnetism as the abstract concept of the figure there appears, as an immanent form of juxtaposition distinct from that determined by gravity, a kind of magnetism transformed into total corporeality, cohesion.

      The common understanding of cohesion merely refers to the individual moment of quantitative strength of the connection between the parts of a body.

      Granular Materials

      Concrete cohesion is the immanent form and determinacy of this connection, and comprehends both external crystallisations and the fragmentary shapes or central shapes, crystallisation which displays itself inwardly in transparent movement. Through external crystallisation the individual body is sealed off as an individual against others, and capable of a mechanical process with them. As an inwardly formed entity the body specifies this process in terms of its behaviour as a merely general mass.

      In terms of its elasticity, hardness, softness, viscosity, and abilities to extend or to burst, the body retains its individual determinacy in resistance to external force.